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Man, the State and War
Man, the State and War A THEORETICAL ANALYSIS
Kenneth N. Waltz
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS New York
Columbia University Press Publishers Since 1893 New York Chichester, West Sussex Copyright © 1954, 1959, 2001 Columbia University Press All rights reserved Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Waltz, Kenneth Neal, 1924– Man, the state, and war : a theoretical analysis / Kenneth N. Waltz. New York : Columbia University Press, 2001. p. cm. Originally published: 1959. With new pref. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0–231–12537–2 1. International relations—Philosophy. 2. State, The. 3. War. 2001042082
I Columbia University Press books are printed on permanent and durable acid-free paper. Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
(1959) by William T. R. Fox
PREFACE TO THE FOREWORD
I. II. III.
THE FIRST IMAGE:
International Conflict and Human Behavior
SOME IMPLICATIONS OF THE FIRST IMAGE:
The Behavioral Sciences and the Reduction of Interstate Violence IV. V.
International Conflict and the Internal Structure of States
SOME IMPLICATIONS OF THE SECOND IMAGE:
THE THIRD IMAGE:
International Conflict and International Anarchy
SOME IMPLICATIONS OF THE THIRD IMAGE:
Examples from Economics, Politics, and History VIII.
THE SECOND IMAGE:
International Socialism and the Coming of the First World War VI.
PREFACE TO THE 2001 EDITION
five decades have passed since I wrote a doctoral dissertation called “Man, the State, and the State System in Theories of the Causes of War.” After all these years, it is pleasant to recall the origins and evolution of the manuscript. In 1950, when my wife and I were graduate students at Columbia, I devoted the academic year to two demanding tasks— preparing for the two-hour oral examination that determined one’s academic fate and securing a long enough delay in my recall by the army to enable me to be around for the birth of our first child. By April of 1951, I had finished preparing for my minor field, international relations, and planned to spend the few remaining weeks on a final review of my major field, political theory. At that moment I learned that Professor Nathaniel Peffer, who was to be my principal examiner in international relations, was in poor health and would not serve on committees for students minoring in the field. I thereupon asked Professor William T. R. Fox to replace Peffer and explained that, as was Professor Peffer’s custom, we had agreed that I would concentrate on certain topics, such as imperialism and European diplomatic history, and leave largely aside such other topics as international law and organization. After phoning the all-knowing departmental secretary, Edith Black, and finding that such arrangements were indeed often made, Professor Fox turned to me and in a kindly voice said, in effect: Nevertheless when you offer international relations as a field for examination, you cover the field rather than breaking it into bits and concentrating on a few topics. Under other circumstances, I might have postponed the examination till fall—a sensible plan since word was around that twothirds of graduate students flunked their orals. By fall, however, I would be in the army again. Graduate students called Professor Fox ALMOST
Preface to the 2001 Edition
“Superpower Fox” after the tit