Studies From Yale Psychological Laboratory

Studies From Yale Psychological Laboratory

Citation preview

Über dieses Buch Dies ist ein digitales Exemplar eines Buches, das seit Generationen in den Regalen der Bibliotheken aufbewahrt wurde, bevor es von Google im Rahmen eines Projekts, mit dem die Bücher dieser Welt online verfügbar gemacht werden sollen, sorgfältig gescannt wurde. Das Buch hat das Urheberrecht überdauert und kann nun öffentlich zugänglich gemacht werden. Ein öffentlich zugängliches Buch ist ein Buch, das niemals Urheberrechten unterlag oder bei dem die Schutzfrist des Urheberrechts abgelaufen ist. Ob ein Buch öffentlich zugänglich ist, kann von Land zu Land unterschiedlich sein. Öffentlich zugängliche Bücher sind unser Tor zur Vergangenheit und stellen ein geschichtliches, kulturelles und wissenschaftliches Vermögen dar, das häufig nur schwierig zu entdecken ist. Gebrauchsspuren, Anmerkungen und andere Randbemerkungen, die im Originalband enthalten sind, finden sich auch in dieser Datei – eine Erinnerung an die lange Reise, die das Buch vom Verleger zu einer Bibliothek und weiter zu Ihnen hinter sich gebracht hat. Nutzungsrichtlinien Google ist stolz, mit Bibliotheken in partnerschaftlicher Zusammenarbeit öffentlich zugängliches Material zu digitalisieren und einer breiten Masse zugänglich zu machen. Öffentlich zugängliche Bücher gehören der Öffentlichkeit, und wir sind nur ihre Hüter. Nichtsdestotrotz ist diese Arbeit kostspielig. Um diese Ressource weiterhin zur Verfügung stellen zu können, haben wir Schritte unternommen, um den Missbrauch durch kommerzielle Parteien zu verhindern. Dazu gehören technische Einschränkungen für automatisierte Abfragen. Wir bitten Sie um Einhaltung folgender Richtlinien: + Nutzung der Dateien zu nichtkommerziellen Zwecken Wir haben Google Buchsuche für Endanwender konzipiert und möchten, dass Sie diese Dateien nur für persönliche, nichtkommerzielle Zwecke verwenden. + Keine automatisierten Abfragen Senden Sie keine automatisierten Abfragen irgendwelcher Art an das Google-System. Wenn Sie Recherchen über maschinelle Übersetzung, optische Zeichenerkennung oder andere Bereiche durchführen, in denen der Zugang zu Text in großen Mengen nützlich ist, wenden Sie sich bitte an uns. Wir fördern die Nutzung des öffentlich zugänglichen Materials für diese Zwecke und können Ihnen unter Umständen helfen. + Beibehaltung von Google-Markenelementen Das "Wasserzeichen" von Google, das Sie in jeder Datei finden, ist wichtig zur Information über dieses Projekt und hilft den Anwendern weiteres Material über Google Buchsuche zu finden. Bitte entfernen Sie das Wasserzeichen nicht. + Bewegen Sie sich innerhalb der Legalität Unabhängig von Ihrem Verwendungszweck müssen Sie sich Ihrer Verantwortung bewusst sein, sicherzustellen, dass Ihre Nutzung legal ist. Gehen Sie nicht davon aus, dass ein Buch, das nach unserem Dafürhalten für Nutzer in den USA öffentlich zugänglich ist, auch für Nutzer in anderen Ländern öffentlich zugänglich ist. Ob ein Buch noch dem Urheberrecht unterliegt, ist von Land zu Land verschieden. Wir können keine Beratung leisten, ob eine bestimmte Nutzung eines bestimmten Buches gesetzlich zulässig ist. Gehen Sie nicht davon aus, dass das Erscheinen eines Buchs in Google Buchsuche bedeutet, dass es in jeder Form und überall auf der Welt verwendet werden kann. Eine Urheberrechtsverletzung kann schwerwiegende Folgen haben. Über Google Buchsuche Das Ziel von Google besteht darin, die weltweiten Informationen zu organisieren und allgemein nutzbar und zugänglich zu machen. Google Buchsuche hilft Lesern dabei, die Bücher dieser Welt zu entdecken, und unterstützt Autoren und Verleger dabei, neue Zielgruppen zu erreichen. Den gesamten Buchtext können Sie im Internet unter http://books.google.com durchsuchen.

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project to make the world’s books discoverable online. It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that’s often difficult to discover. Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book’s long journey from the publisher to a library and finally to you. Usage guidelines Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. We also ask that you: + Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes. + Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google’s system: If you are conducting research on machine translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. + Maintain attribution The Google “watermark” you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. + Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can’t offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book’s appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. About Google Book Search Google’s mission is to organize the world’s information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers discover the world’s books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web at http://books.google.com/

>,' • ••

~

.

1

,•

Digitized by

Goog le

l t !

,

., Digitized by

Coogle

..

~

Digitized

bvGoogle

I

,

Digitized

bvGoogle

Copyright BY EDWARD

W.

1901

ScRIPTURE

PRIHOI' THI NIW IRA HIINTifiiiQ COMftAN'f', Lo\lfCAITUI, PA.

Digitized by

Goog le

STUDIES FROM THE

Yale Psychological Laboratory I

IIDITED BY

EDWARD W. SCRIPTURE, PH.D. Director of the Psychological Laboratory.

Volume

vm.

1900

CONTENTS. A safe test for color vision, by E. W.

ScluPTURE,

Researches on movements used in writing, by CLOYD N. McALLISTER,

Ph.D.,

21

Researches in cross-education (second series), by

WALTER W.

64

DAVIS,

Computation of a set of simple direct measurements, by E. W. SCRIPTURE,

YALE UNIVERSITY,

I 10

NEW

HA\'E:-1, CON:-1.

Price, $1. Obtainable at NEW HAVEN, Psychological Laboratory, 109 Elm Street; NEW YORK, GIIStav E. l'techert, 9 East Sixteenth Street; LoNDON, Williams and Norgate, 14, Henrietta St .• Covent Garden; LEIPZIG, Bernhard Liebisrh, Karprinz.Strasse 6; PARIS, Schleicher Freres, 15, Rue des Saintes-Peres; DOL· OGNA, Pietro Virano, Piaua Galvani.

Digitized by

Goog le

Digitized by

Goog le

A TEST OF SAFE COLOR VISION RY

E.

w.

SCRIPTURF..

The problem that confronts the examiner of the color vision of applicants for positions on the railway and on shipboard has been frequently misunderstood. The usual test with colored wools aimed at picking out two classes of men with so-called green-blind and red-blind vision. The object of any test for color vision employed in these two services should be to pick out the men who can with absolute safety be trusted to recognize the signal colors. The two systems of testing are quite opposite ; the one picks out and excludes men conspicuously unsafe and lets all the others into the service, while the other picks out and passes only the absolutely sate ones and excludes all others. When human life may be endangered by a mistake, the only admissible test is the latter one. It is my opinIon that one, and only one, test of color vision should be used by examiners: namely, one that proves every person tested by it to be of safe or of unsafe color vision. PRINCIPLES FOR A TEST OF COLOR VISION.

The fundamental requirement for a test of color vision is that of rdiallility; the test must with absolute certainty exclude all forms of color defect that would interfere with service on the railway and on shipboard, and must not exclude persons who do not possess such defects. This requirement is not met by the wool test. In the first place there are many cases of rejection for color blindness which later examination proves to have been unjustified. There are also many ca'ies of color blindness discovered after the person has passed the test ; these are regularly treated as cases of ''acquired" color blindness. without the certainty that they are not sometimes cases of overlooked color blindness. On the other hand, railway and marine surgeons who use a test with colored glasses in addition to the wool test, constantly report the discovery of cases by the one form of test which have successfully passed the other one. This would indicate that neither the wool test nor the usual test with colored glasses is reliable. The first principle to be adopted for a test is that of the closest possible rtstmblanct to tlu actual conditions under which lights are to be

Digitized by

Goog le

E . 1-V. Scripturt,

2

judged. In practice a railway man or a pilot is required to decide for himself which of the lights he sees are red, green and white. An ideal test would consist of an immense number of such lights under all the variations of brightness, distance, fog, etc. Any concrete test should consist in the reduction of this ideal to a convenient form . The usual wool test fails in respect to this principle. In practice the railway man or pilot is never required to put into a pile all the objects that resemble a certain sample. The second principle is derived directly from the first one: the ob· jects used in the test should rrsemble tlu (J/Ijats in actual practice. Colored lights would conform to this principle. A third principle may likewise be deduced from the first one: the person tested should be rec1uired to name tl1t o/!fect.r. This is just what be does in thinking about the lights he sees when at work ; he decid~ that this one is " red," that one is "green," etc. The judgment of the likeness or unlikeness of colored objects is an utterly different matter and involves a different form of mental activity. Great trouble and uncertainty arise in the wool. test because it demands a different form of judgment from that to which the men have been accustomed. The usual objection to having the colors named arises from the fact that such naming is inadmissible in the HoLMliREN test. A fourth principle may also be deduced from the first one : several colors should be presmtrd simu/taneous(v for comparison. · In practice the person sees several lights together; he compares them and decides on their colors. The secret of the past success of the HoLMGREN test over the tests of the DoNDERS form with colored glasses lies in its use of the principle of comparison. The ideal test would combine this principle with the other three in which the HoDIGREN test fails . The color sense tester as first devised 1 has undergone several changes.· The principles on which it is based were first published 2 in outline in 1899; the foregoing account summarizes them briefly. The present account of the first model is reproduced with some changes from an account in the Procudings tif tht IV. /ntemationa/ Co11grcss tif Psychology, Paris, 1900. The second model is here described for the first time. THE COLOR SENSE TESTER

(FIRST ~IODEL).

In general appearance the color sense tester resembles an ophthalmoapparalu.r, Stud. Yale l'sych. Lab. , 1895 lll 103. ((>/"r MindliN.< mill its lr..

1

Digitized by

Goog le





.f.

E. Wallau Wallin,

speech. The rapidity of ordinary utterance is so great as to render the elements of language too subtle for the processes of work-a-day analysis, and recourse must be taken to some means of aiding the power of mental analysis, namely, to magnifying the phenomena; this can be done by listening to a phonograph record, the rate of the rotation of the cylinder of which has been sufficiently reduced. In a few instances it was impossible, in measuring, to detect any gaps between the syllables : they seemed to coalesce. In yet other instances, the gaps could be perceived, but were so indistinct as to make it hazardous to measure them. These instances are indicated in the records by a? In the table which follows a comparison is made between ante-, interand post-centroid silences. Only the average duration is given. TAIILK

Vlll'

Duraliolf of siklfus.

Suhjul.

A. R. P.

w.c. J. M. T.

·+

+

O.lOJ O, Jo8

0.200 O.JOO

0.136

0.0 1

I6

35

0

20

0

20 ~

0

43

And Jura answers,-through her misty shroud,-

J2

I4

o, 28 0 2I 0 4I 0 19 0 33 0 Back to the joyous Alps,-who call-to her-aloud!

?

22 01

17 o 14

..

8o

0

••

22 4I o 1

54

And this is in the night :-Most glorious night!45

44

S8 ~~ 14 0 ,.~ 1 I2 0 1 II o II o 22 0 Thou wert not sent for slumber !-let me be 18 ~~

28

0

..

I5 e1

36

,.

e 1 I 7 :;)

37 53

A sharer in thy fierce-and far delight,Io

40

o, 30 0 1 28 o I5 ~.51 II A portion of the tempest-and of Thee!I8 39

Digitized by

Goog le

Reuardus on the rhythm of speech.

49

o, I3 o, I4 ~. 48 0 T 9 t, II 0 35 '1 lit lake shmes,-a phosphoric sea,28 30 A II ~I I4 ~P4 0 I3 ~. 25 oT IO o 52 And the big rain comes dancing to the earth ! 38 o, 35 0 27 0 67 30 •• 63 0 And now-again-' tis black,-and now,-the gl'ee20 IS 40 8 23 0I9•71 •• 47 0 19 0 54 Of the loud hihs-sh~kes with its mountain mirth,52 45 o I8 o IS~ 1 48f 20012 A 1 54 o As if they did rejoi"ce~'er a young earth-qtiakes-birth. 33 23 (Childe Harold, Byron.) Unit of measurement, },; of a second. The stanzas were chosen as typical examples of Byronic vigor. The record strikes the ear as aiming more at painting the scene than moving in measured strides. The rhythm is vague. Several glides occur. .T he centroi~ are emotional, rather than logical. The elements of pitch, intensity and duration are each quite conspicuous. The verses afford an interesting study of the sectional and end-line pauses; several are run-on, with sectional pauses. Several of the larger pun~tuation marks occur within the line. A

01

I2

How

the

Fourth specimen, J . K. (Kawabe, graduate student, philosophy. ) 0

16

36 1Kimiga

?

ta I 7 0 I 5 t, 2 I Chiyo ni yachiyo ni? 0t I2

t.

25

A

I8

0

1

20

•• 45

I3

ishe no7 0

o 9 o 9 o 17 yo wa~

I

Kimiga yo wa-

Saure

Fifth specimen, I. M. (Miyake, graduate student, psychology.)

I

I9

0

I

0

IO 01

28

Chiyo ni yachiyo ni? 0

40

22

35



A

0t 16 o, 53

II

Sazare

51

ishi

no-

41

39 29

0

25

Iwao to narite 48 I wao to nari te? 0 8 o, 10 0 IO :J , Koke no musu made. II 31 0 IS 0 I I 0 41 I Koke no musu made. (National poem of Japan. ) Unit of measurement, },; of a second.

Digitized by

51

52

Goog le

so

J.

E . Wallace Wallin,

The numerals following each verse indicate lengths of the lines. Both subjects are natives of Japan. The poem was recited (chanted) and declaimed, strictly following Japanese usage. The above are the records of declamation and not of song. The line meter strikes the ear as being perhaps more prominent than the centroid or "foot" meter. Theoretically, Japanese poetry is nonaccentual. The centroids, however, were easily located by the experimenter, and the result was verified by the judgment of J. K. Japanese admit emphasis, as distinguished from accent, but make the distribution wholly arbitrary. It will be seen, however, that both records correspond in regard to the location of the centroids, with the exception of one instance. The only meter which Japanese prosody recognizes is the line meter, the above consisting of an alternation of the five-syllable with the sevensyllable type. The five verses constitute one sentence. The following is a free English rendering of the poem : " May thy throne last forever, until the sands shall become rock and mosses shall grow thereon.'' Sixth specimm, H. 0. (Ohrnstedt, age 12). t.

a20

01

ts

30

2I 0

38

I stilla glans--han trader fram :8 IS

t.

20 0

t.

30

I9 0

48

Af spridda tar-och spada lamII

28

o, 20 0 27 t 20 0 38 Han sig en hjord-fOrsamla vill,12

18

ts 190 20 0 1 200 55 Den himmelriket-hOrer till.?

ts

22

33

o 20

o 37

0 1 20

Och himmel skall forgas och jord,19 20 0

01

I9 0 2 20 0

42

Men ej hans helga dyra ord,22

ts

22 0 2I

t

21

0

Hans namn af alia tungorsljud20

Digitized by

Goog le

of spuch.

Nutardus on llu rhythm 0 2 I ~ 20 0

39

51

20 0

Skall kallas Fralsare och Gud. Unit of measurement, -llf of a second. The record was taken for the purpose of studying sing-song. The rhythm is very marked. The end-stopped verses predominate. No intra-line punctuation marks occur. Srotnlh sptcimtn, 0. S. (Sandquist, age 13). 20

0

22

0

0

19

26

0

0. Jesu Krist-att nalkas dig-

? 0

16

II

19

0

39

0

Och dig i tro tillbedja,x8 0

21

21

0

0

20

26

0

26

0

0

Det endast kan pl sorgens stig-ratt innerligIo

For first stanza and explanation see p. 28. This record furnishes an excellent specimen of the doggerel scansion so common to children. Eighth spuimm, G. A. A. (Andreen, lecturer; professor of Scandinavian languages. )

g>,

16

0

t,,

16

t

27

14

031

19

0

01

Washington was a statesman of the highest order,-never a wily 18 19 ~~

I

5

01

0 II

42

0

I

6

t,

20

t.

t, I 0 0

20

25

scheming pol i tician.-When a cabal was formed-to remove him from

?

32

g> 16

t,

o

16

47

ts 15

0,14

o

t,

16

20

the command and elevate Gates,-in perfect equipoise of mind and 27 0

25

t,

23

0

59

~~

25

g> 16

0

52

temper,-he moved not a finger.-Neither was he a brilliant orator.6 47 33 0 10 0 28 0 13 0 20 t, IS c 40 t. 25 So that his excellence consisted not in show and glitter,-but in nobleness

24

Digitized by

Goog le

J. E. Wallace Wallin, ~~

48

ll

I8

OI3ll 1

34

0

20

0

59

of heart,-solidity of understanding,-and tenacity of purpose.-No 23 ~~ I6

I4

o

25 o

IS

o I8

!

37

29

o,

~.

I8

35

e,

wonder then-that every American feels-as if it were true,-that " take I6 20

I9

0 I3 0

~. 9 0 I2 0

32

IO

2I IS

0

0

I2

0

~.

4I

him for all in all,-we shall not look upon his like again,'' -that none I8

23

25 0 I I 0 IS 0 34 o, 26 0 25 0 42 o, 31 do we more love to honor,-none so impresses our souls,-as he,-" the 23 I8 o

01

32

20

01

o

23 38

24

01

15

23

01

o

first in war,-the first in peace,-the first in the hearts of his countrymen.'' I7

2I

Unit of measurement, -(-p; of a second. The address was read from the manuscript. The style was rhetorical ; the utterances rapid and forcible . The subject was asked to make the record a typical address to an audience. Tenth specimm, W. L. P. (Phelps, lecturer; professor, Eng. Lit.) ll

I 2 0 IS

~~ 20

62

01

0 I7 ~

29 0 1

34

The class of ninety-nine-did not hold a very high reputation-as 22 o

70 o

38

I2

if,

o, 20 • 27

8o ~

~. 21

37

o

scholars,-either for-study or for morals.-And it was notorious that 23

I3

2I 0 I7 ~~

I70

70. t6

0 2I

~~II ~

93

01

34

they paid no attention to the Sunday services; -but one morning, the

s6

01

4I

0

I4

El 1

54 0 I I 0

55 ~~

24 ••

22 ~.

20 ~.

84

minister,-in the chapel,-gave out the hymn-n~mber ninety-ni"ne ! I3

34

36

74

o 20 ~. I6 ~ 55 o, 35 o 25 o 17 ~ 48 o 20 And with one accord,-the students of the class of ninety-nine--opened 32 0

40

01

34 I

9

77

01

0

I6

0

I 7 ~~

34

the hymn book,-to find the pl~ce-and what was their amazement, on 13

52

Digitized by

Goog le

Ruurrdus on tlu rltythm of spuclz.

t.

53

20 ., 6 5 o 20 ~. 16 ~ 70 i. 25 ~. 45 •• reading the first-line,-number ninety-nine ; -great-God ! -what 53 10 16 ? 49 o 21

l1

It

..

0, 43 ~. 40 0 worthless-worms are we ! 15 Unit of measurement, -l,; of a second. The words were spoken extemporaneously. The movement is, on the whole, slow; the articulation distinct; the style colloquial. The sentences were punctuated by the speaker. Eleventh specimen, C. 0. S. (Scoville, clergyman, graduate student, philosophy.)

t,

17

Almighty

0 1 II 0

God,

0



unto

..

t

•• 32 o, 25 ~ 34 all desires-known,-and 9 IS

••

'f

44

2S

-Cleanse 39

o,

the

thoughts

35 Holy-Spirit,-that 14 27 0

thy

20

0

.

13 •• 20 t., • all hearts whom

I3

28

from

0

whom

0

are

22'

open,7

II erfectly

of

o, 36 love-thee,-and ? I9

.

4S 0 0 IS 0 32 ~~ 14 0 16 0 34 holy Name ;-through Christ--our Lord. worthily magnify- thy 12 II 2S 10

..••

33

Lord,-let

0

me

know

29 mine

29

0

end,

and

0

the

number

34 of my

?

••

28 0 24 0 s8 21 28 20 OliO 0 0 0 " days:-that I may be certified how long I have to live.-Behold, 36 7

s

..

22 0 18. 26 0 0 27 0 30 so 23 " :-and my -thou hast made my days as it were-a span-long I6 12 ? 7

Digitized by

Goog le

j. E.

54

Wal/a(~

/V,,ffin,

~ 21 0 27 ~~ 16 0 20 0 21 ~ 46 0 19 0 30 e age is even as nothing in respect of thee ;--and verily every man

t

living

27

..

~~

25

is

28

0

19 0

al-together-vanity.

?

7

Unity of measurement, -h of a second. Both prayers were read from the manual. The latter is offered at the burial of the dead. The movement is slow, the melody solemn, the intonation monotonous, the style that of devout consecration or solemn importunation, and the rhythm quite manifest in certain phrases. The duration centroids are prominent. Tut ruords.-The rhythmic feeling has been asserted to be the most general resthetic endowment of man. 1 Most people undoubtedly -distinguish spoken verse from prose largely on the basis of this feeling. The external embodiment of verse (aside from the nature of the thought), that is, its verse and stanza-like structure as it appears in print, may be presumed, however, from the law of association, to play no inconsiderable part in lending support to the distinction. How, now, would the judgment of the individual be affected after the props of association have been removed? How would naive, unsophisticated thought regard the distinction of prose and poetry into measured and unmeasured language. To get at the uncritical, spontaneous judgment of the individual, the following test was devised : The subject was conveniently seated before the phonograph, and was given a short passage in print, the contents of which were unknown to him, to be immediately read into the phonograph. He was urged to make his reading natural and representative. Two devices were employed. In the first the subject was given a selection of poetry printed in the form of prose ; in the second, a passage of ·melodious prose printed as a stanza of poetry. In the latter case the subject was allowed to read the stanza through, before speakmg into the tube, _and was then told to read it according to his own discretion. After the passage had been read the following questions were asked : 1. Did the passage, as you read it, sound familiar? 2. What did you spontaneously conclude regarding its form? If the -question had never been raised, would you have taken it for granted that you read a piece of poetry or prose? What did you feel it to be? I LANIER; GURNEY,

as before,

128

If.;

BOLTON,

as before.

Digitized by

Goog le

Rtstardus on tlu rhythm

of spudt.

55

3· Without engaging in reflective analysis, what do you instinctively feel to be at the basis of your judgment? Why poetry? Why prose? 4· Did the passage sound smooth or rugged as you were reading, or was it indifferent? 5· What did you feel these properties to be due to? 6. Did the passage sound melodious to you ? If so, what does melody in speech mean to you ? What are its elements? Care was taken lest the subject should begin to unduly reflect upon the questions. Those judgments were rejected where the subject was familiar with the quotations. The questions were submitted to several persons from whom no records were taken. The questions are in no wise to be considered as a statistical enquiry. They are only intended to reveal the state of consciousness, or the spontaneous judgments, of unsuspecting subjects. After the answers had been given and the device exposed, the subjects of the first experiment were handed a copy in which the poetical quotation was printed in its original form,-that is, as poetry. The subjects were then asked to familiarize themselves with the contents, and read it as poetry. Thus it was possible to make a comparison of the two renderings by a study of the phonograph records. A third device consisted in eliminating all the punctuation marks. The subject was not allowed to examine the passage before speaking it into the recording tube. (a) Rtcords of vtrst.

Twdjth spuimtn. J. M. T. ( Telleen, graduate student, English.) (A, without punctuation marks.) 0 1 16 0 14 0 25 0 25 0 41 028 e 40 0 Nothing henceforth-man's existence-bows--[bows] to the mo--ni-

29

II

24

20

8 0 16 0 30 0 25 0 24 0 26 0 9 0 I7 e 1 27 tion wait take the joys and bear the sorrows neither with extreme con-

o 25 0 IS • 35 0 I7 0 20 0, 40 0 20 ~~ 13 0, 30 cern-Jiving here-means nescience simply-' tis [the] next I i fe-that 12 0

IS

24 0

18

0

25 9. 14 • 21

ii, 13 0

39

10 ~.

27

0

12 • 14. 27

helps to Jearn-shut those eyes--next life-will open-stop those ears-7

8

29

12

13

~~ 12 0 33 0 19 0 20 0 37 e 14 e 13 0 26 0 l4 0 II next life-will teach-hearing's office-close those lips--next life 17 II 23 I7

Digitized by

Goog le

J.

s6 I6

0

3S

0

E. Wallace Wallin,

3S

0

0

will give the power of speech ! r~ad

(B,

as prou.)

2I

01

• IS

I4

0

0

21

2S

0

28

01

0

7

26

0

Nothing !-Henceforth man's existence-bows to the mo nition8 s 8 32

01

I8

0

01

28

29

e1

30

0

0

12

Ot 32

0

20

wait-! Take the joys and bear the sorrows-neither with extreme 23

13

o 39 "• 10 • 16 o I8 o 17 o 3S ei2 o 11 o 23 concern !-Living here means nescience simply :-'tis next life that 26 2I

0

2S

t

e 1 4I

11

OIO e 1 32

0

12

20

0

0

41

e 1 36 0 9

helps to leam.-Shut those eyes,-next life-will open,-(those] stop 29

20

6

23

e 19 0 4I ~~ 20 e 31 0 IS ~I 24 0 40 0, 8 0 7 0, 37 those ears,-next life will teach hearing's office,-close those lips,27

27 2S

" I6 v

23

0

33

0

2S

0

next life will give the power of speech ! (C,

r~ad

as podry.)

23

0

S2 • 20

0

0

20

26

0

3S

0,

0

23

Nothing !-Hence-forth man's existence bows to the monitionto 44 8 43

0

wait-! 3S 0

~I

17

42

0

24 ~I

37

0

12

0

20

0

2S

0

40

Take the joys-and bear the sorrows-neither with extreme concern ! -

.I

2o

28

34

0 18 26 0 IS ~. . 19 0 43 o, 13 t 13 0 24 0 20 Living here-means nescience simply :-'tis next life that helps:_ to

? 0

30

so

leam.42

t 1 9 e 1 I 3 e 1 SO 0 1 I 3 0 I 9 e 48 0 1 12 0 I 7 e 1 46 o, 12 0 Shut those eyes,-next life will open,-stop those ears,-next life 34 33 37 30

e 22

will teach

Digitized by

Goog le

Rtuardus on tlu rhythm "

so t,

16 0

8 o, 13 0, 37

"t

of spudt.

12 0

57

28 0

27 0

36

Hearing's office,-close those lips,-next life will give the power-of37 28 ? ? 0

speech. (Browning.) Unit of measurement, ·iw of a second. Answtrs lo quutions.-1. No. 2. Prose. 3· Form of print. .4- Rugged. 5· The thought ; loose rhythm. 6. No. Tltirtunth sjJtcimm. C. 0. (Olson, graduate student, English.) (A, rtad as prost.) 220 290 1 29 0 1 90 21 o, 32 0 30 o Nothing !-Henceforth man's existence-bows to the mon ition6 II I8 0 1 39 o 18 0 24 ~~ 23 o 47 o II o 20" 2I wait !-Take the joys and bear the sorrows-neither with extreme con33

31

" 46 o 14 o x6 o 40 o 26 o 4I 0 12 "• 13 t 25 cern !-Living here means-nescience simply :-'tis next life that 38 0,

27

19

39 ~. 12



t

26

14 ~' 29 0

12 ;,

19

0

39

t,

12 0,

helps to leam.-Shut those eyes,-next life will open,-stop those 31 II

~~

18

25

e 25 0 2S 0 23 0 14 %, 19 0 43 ;, 16 ;16 t, 25 Oil ears,-next life will teach hearing's office,--close those lips,-next IS 26 IS 24

0

I

2

;,

25



0

life-will give the power of-speech. 6 9 ( B, rtad as podry.) o, 46 o x6 • 18 o 21 o 26 o 29 o 21 o, 41 Nothing !-Hencef~·rth man's existence-bows to the monition-wait!30

IO

IO

32

0 12 •• 32 0, I9 • SI o, 9 0 I7 0 22 0 49 Take the j~ys-and bear the ~'rrows-neither with extreme concern !32

IS 6

IO e 1 20 0 13

€2

23

0

35

34

01 I I

t, 12 0

20

0

I8

Living h~re means nescience simply :-'tis next life that helps to 22 0

42

learn.-

Digitized by

Goog le

J.

E. Wal/au Wallin,

30 8 o 9 ~~ 23 o I 2 0 1 20 ~~ 23 0 1 8 e 1 12 e 1 24 0 1 9 0 Shut those eyes,-next life will open,--stop th'~se e::rs,-next lifeIS 9 3I 9 47 0 2I will teach01

II

~~

I6

4I

0

8

0

9

0

0

.

26 ~~ I2 e 1

2I

0

~2

16

Hearing's office,-·dose those lips,-next life will give the power 28 3I

I8

0

of-speech! I6

Unit of measurement, -h of a second. Answ~rs toquestio11s.-1. No. 2. Dramatic prose. 3· Did not "feel" it to be poetry. 4· Smooth. 5· The movement. 6. Yes. Smoothness and movement. Fourteenth spuimm. G. F. A. (Abel, graduate student, philosophy.) ( Without punctuation marks.) ~~ I 2 e 1 I7 0 1

30

29

01

3 7 0 1 19

0

17

0

· Henceforth man's existence-bows to the monition-wait-take the I4 01

~~

25

I9

39

01

26 10

0

o, 24

10

24

01

0 1 10 0 1

14

joys and bear the sorrows--neither with extreme--concern-living 25 8 ? I8 o? II

0

22

01

t, 14 0 1

52

0

3I

0

17 e

41

01

here means nescience-simply-'tis next life-that helps to learn-shut 7 I20 1 Ioe 22o 1 to

01

15

33 o

I6

31

36 o 9 • I3 • 37 o 1 I2 o

19

o 10

those eyes--next life will open-stop those ears--next life will teach 8 0,

IS

0

25 39 ••

12 . ,

IS

0

33

24 0

I2 ()

t8

0

17

0

29

hearing's office--close those lips-next life will give the power ofz6 26 8 0

speech! Unit of measurement, -h of a second. to questions.-I . No. 2. Prose. 3· Arrangement of words; form ; lack of rhyme. 4· First part, rough ; second part, smooth. 5· Lack of meaning and punctuation marks. 6. Yes and no, as in 4· Rhythm, if anything. Answ~r

Digitized by

Goog le

.R~stardus

on th~ rhythm of sp~uh.

Fijieentlt sp~dmm. W. C. (A, r~ad as pros~.)

59

(Churchill, graduate student, philosophy.)

o 18 0 1 23 o 9 o, 15 0 23 o 16 0 1 15 •• 17 o Oh yet we trust-that somehow good will be the final goal of ill, 5 49 0 1 23 o 24 o 21 o 53 o 19 01 25 01 21 -to pangs of nature,-sins of will,--defects of doubt, -and taints of 39

12

0

56

45

21

01

30

0

19 21

0

57

0

OIIOI40 1

blood ;-that nothing walks-with aimless feet ;-that no one life-

so

18

49

9

o 15 o 40 o 22 o 19 o 11 o 49 01 shall be destroyed-or cast as rubbish to the void,-when God hath 31 41 24 0 18 0 :z:z 0 made the pile complete. 24

(B,

r~ad

as podry.) o 20 0 1 28 o 9 lit 01 Oh yet we trust-that somehow-good13 ? 9 23

0

19

is

18

01

21

40

0

Will be the final goal of ill,37

•z

23

0

27

24

0

0

45

To pangs of n~ture,-sins of will,15 23

0

46

0

37 22

0

61

0

Defects of doubt, -and taints of blood ;34 At

18

48 23

0

20

0

48

0

That nothing walks with aimless feet;43

g>, 10 0 13 0 1

27

0

19

36

0

That no one life-shall be destroyed,33

11

0

27

0

22

0

14

0

48

Or cast as rubbish-to the void,-

? 0

26

0

34 23

t.

41

0

When God hath made the pile-complete. 16

(Tennyson.)

Digitized by

Goog le

J.

6o

E. Wallace Wallin,

Unit of measurement, -Ia of a second . •Wxtunth spuimm. B. S. G. (Gowen, college senior.) ( Without punduation marks.) 0 25 0 22 t28 ~~ I7 0 1 29 0 14 0 16 • 41 o Oh yet we trust that somehow-good-will be the final goal-of ill7 I2 25 5

22 o 24 o 39 o 6o c 30 o 18 o1 28 o 23 o to pangs of nature-sins-of will-defects of doubt and taints of blood 26 35 19 0 I5 01 42 • 19 0 35 0 8 ts 13 0 23 o 32 -that nothing walks-with aimless feet-that no one life-shall be 20 25 x8 5

16 0 40 • 0 22 0 19 0 .II 0 49 0, 24 0 18 destroyed-or cast as rubbish to the void-when God hath made the 21 41 0 22 0 pile complete.

Unit of measurement, -h of a second. Answers to questions.-x. No. 2 . Prose. 3· "Felt " no rhythm. Quite smooth. 5· Smooth succession of words ; occasional rhythm. In parts. Fitness of language to thought, and character of thought. Sn,enlunlh specimen. S. (Smith, laboratory mechanic. )

4· 6. ,

(A, read as prose. ) 24 0 17 0 18 0 19 0 17 0 0 19 0 25 0 Oh yet we trust that somehow-good will be the final goal of ill,5 42

so 0 24 0 33 c 20 0 33 0 21 0 32 0 19 to pangs of nature,-sins of will,-defects of doubt,-and taints of 18 25 23 30 o 23 o 50 o II ts 120 o 37 o 18 o blood ;-that nothing walks with aimless feet ;-that no one life 32 39 21 0 32. 53 0 25 0 29 0 66 0 16 shall be-destroyed-or cast as rubbish-to the void,-when God hath 19 30 12 53 0 20 0 23 0 made the pile complete.

(B, read as poetry. ) 0 42 0 25 0 SI 0 33 Oh yet-we trust that somehow-good x8 27

Digitized by

Goog le

Rueardzes on the rhythm of speuh.

61

ss

0 20 0 21 0 34 0

Will be the final goal of ill,45 26

0

45 0 20

0

0 34

To pangs of nature,-sins of will,29 0

22

0

27

40

0

20

0

59

Defects of doubt,-and taints of blood ;25 0

19

43 29

0

0

22 •

47

That nothing walks-with aimless feet ;? 29 0 10029 0

That

no 0

one

23 0

25

life-shall 7 430?

I

18

0

be

0



36

destroyed,22

7 0

49

Or cast as rubbish-to the void,23 0

29

32 0

19

0

24

0

When God-hath made the pile complete. 7 Unit of measurement, -lrr of a second. Answers to quutions. 1. No. 2 . Prose. 3· Felt little rhythm. 4Not very smooth. 5· Form of expression . 6. Yes. Rhythm and vowel sounds. Two other persons replied to the questions, but no records of their recitations were made. (B) 1. No. 2 . Poetry. 3· Rhythm, ~yme and sentiment. 4- Smooth. 5· Metrical perfection, uniform length of words, avoidance of sibilants. 6. Yes. Meter, onomatopoetic words, o sounds, polished expression of sentiment. (C) 1. No. 2. Prose. 3· Form of print. 4· Smooth. 5· Rhythm and rhyme. 6. No. The above two specimens of poetry are taken from the two foremost poets of the century just closed, the one standing for the highest metrical perfection, the other emphasizing the content rather than the formal investiture of thought. Each instance contains one case of run-on verses. The Browning selection, however, contains by far the greater number of intra-line punctuation marks. To the ear the rhythm of the prose and poetry renderings appears to be about equally balanced. Appeal was made to several ears. On t~

Digitized by

Goog le

J.

62

E. Wallau Wallin,

basis of the rhythm the attempt to distinguish the prose from the poetry in the readings did not prove very successful. The movement in the records without the punctuation marks appears the most rugged. In these records the pauses strike the ear as if placed with diffidence and hesitancy. (b) .Ruords of prou.

EigltteenJ!t speci11un. . , I9

S. I.

(Isakson, stenographer.)

26

0

0 13 0,

20

47

0

To the poor Christian that sits bound in the galley ; 28 0, 20 0 27 0 I7 0 32 0 I4 0 39 To despairful widows,-pensive prisoners,-and deposed kings;-

I3

12

29

o 21 01 28 o 30 o IS o so To them whose fortune runs back-and whose spirits mutiny7 21 0 19 ~~ 23 0 29 0 14 0 17 0 Unto such-death is a redeemer,-and the grave a place for rest.

9

IO

(Essay on Death, Bacon.) Unit of measurement, -(v of a second. Answers to questions.-1. No. 2 . Poetry. 3· Form of print, easy movement, and beautiful sentiment. 4· Smooth. S· Meter. 6. No. Nineteen/It specimen. 0. E. S. (Staaf, graduate student, Latin. ) 0 1 II

28

0

OI3 0

70

100

38

To the poor Christian that sits bound in the galley ; 21 0

I6 0

26 0

I9 0

38

0

I8 0

31

To despairful widows,-pensive prisoners, -and deposed kings;12

~.

29

I4 0

0

0 2I

0

20 14 0

I7 0

43

To them-whose fortune runs back and whose spirits mutiny8 15 0 1 21

0

2S

29

0

0

IS

0

IS

0

Unto such-death is a redeemer,-and the grave a place for rest. I4

IO

Units of measurement, t'I of a second. Answrrs to questions.-1. No. 2 . Poetry. 4· Neither. 6. No.

3· Meter, outward form.

Digitized by

Goog le

.Rueardus on the rhythm

of speech.

Answers to questions were obtained in several cases without taking phonograph records. (D) x. No. 2 . Poetry. 3· Periodic recurrence of accents. 4· Smooth. 5· Rhythm. 6. No. (E) 1. No. 2. Doubtful. First two lines poetry ; last two lines upset judgment. 3· Rhythm of first two lines (poetry); prosaic thought (prose) . 4· Feeling of smoothness gradually vanishing. 5· Correspondence of main stress-points in first two lines (3 each) . 6. Yes. Rhythm. (F) 1 . No. 2. Poetry. 3· Verse-like structure, inversion, a certain rhythm. 6. Yes. Don' t know. (G) x. No. 2 . Poetry. 3· Mechanical form and poetic sentiment. 4· Smooth. 5· ?. 6. Yes. (H), poet 1. No. 2 . Rhythmical prose. 3· No meter. 4· Smooth prose. 5· Swinging movement. 6. Yes. Graceful expression of thought, alliteration and interior rhymes. (I) 1 . No. 2 . Poetry. 3· Meter and poetic language, especially the second line. 4· Not altogether smooth. 5· Smooth flow . 6. Yes. Pleasing sounds. (J) x. No. 2. Both. Lines 2 and 4, poetry; lines I and 3, prose. 3· Rhythm and lack of rhythm. 4· Lines 2 and 4, smooth. 5· Rhythm. 6. Yes.? The second specimen of rhythmical prose arranged as a stanza of poetry is found on p. 26. The questions elicited the following replies : (K) 1. No. 2 . Poetry. 3· Rhythm. 4· Smooth. 5· Regular recurrence of accents. 6. Vague feeling of melody. (L) 1. No. 2 . Poetry. 3· Regularly recurring accents (primarily), rhyme, printed form. 4· Fairly smooth. 5· Rhythm. 6. No. (M) 1. No. 2 . Poetry. 3· Rhythm and rhyme. 4· Smooth. 5· Uniform number of syllables to line. 6. Yes. Rhyme. (N) 1. No. 2 . Prose printed as verse. 3· Subject-matter prosaic. 4· First part smoother. 5· Rhythm and rhyme. 6. No. The judgments were derived from persons who, according to admission, possessed more or less poetic appreciation. Nearly all were admirers of music and the majority possessed some knowledge of its rudiments. The answers throw some light on the varied manifestation of the instinctive or native appreciation of rhythm, smoothness and melody in speech. The connotation of the term melody of speech is in most people's minds shifting and vague. This is suggested by the answers and by a cursory glance at the popular discussions of the subject. The word answers, in most people's minds, to no fixed conception. To most subjects it is interchangeable wit!1 rhythm (motion); to some, with vowel sounds, rhyme and alliteration (tone-color); to others, graceful and fit expression of t!1ought; and yet to others the term has no signification. The connotation of the term smoothness of speech is more fixed than that of melody. This quality was felt to be due to the quality, first, of

Digitized by

Goog le

J.

E. Wallace Wallin,

the movement, and second, of the sound. In some cases no definite notion corresponded to the term ; in others, no smoothness was felt. In some of the latter cases, as was noticed by the experimenter, the reading was rugged. The success of the deception varied. Three subjects declared the verses of Tennyson and Browning to be prose. The reasons given were "lack of rhythm," "form of print," "ind~finite." Only one subject pronounced the verses of Browning, and two the verses of Tennyson, poetry. All the judgments were based on the feeling of rhythm. Six subjects called the prose sentence of Bacon poetry. The reasons given were the outward form, sentiment, poetic language, inversion of words, or rhythm. One subject was doubtful, one pronounced the sentence half-and-half and one (a poet) pronounced it, correctly, rhythmical prose. The specimen of mathematical prose was declared to be poetry by three subjects on the basis of rhythm, rhyme, or the form of print; and to be prpse written as verse by one on. the basis of the prosaic subject matter. Some of the subjects, who felt no rhythm in the lines, pronounced the passages smooth, others feeling no smoothness pronounced the lines rhythmical. The following corollaries, to be held tentatively, are deducible from a comparison of the judgments : (a) Poetry is spontaneously and instinctively distinguished from prose most largely upon the basis of a rhythmic affection of se!lsiJ?iFty. All ·other differences, such as inversion, sentiment, rhyme, etc. , are subordinate. (b) For unsuspecting and na"ive thought, the arrangement of the words into verses and stanzas serves as an important prop for differentiating the rhythms of prose and poetry. The removal of this support tends in the majority of cases to convert the rhythm of poetry into the rhythm of prose, and vice versa. (c) The rhythmic instinct is an affection of sensibility, varying to some extent with individuals. It has two aspects--motor and sensory. The test concerns only the former-the rhythm felt by the subject in uttering and not in hearing uttered a series of words. As a motor phenomenon the instinctive perception of the rhythmical time sense is subject to variations in the immediacy of response and in the universality of manifestation. This is most obviously dependent upon the degree of development of the power of coordinating time-units. . . ·. We begin now the detailed examination of the quantitative detetm.ination of the various groups of recurrences. The verse intervals will most conveniently be dealt with first.

Digitized by

Goog le

.Reuardzes on the rhythm of spuch. C. Verse intervals. The term verse is used in this discussion as synonymous with a line of poetry. The verse interval signifies the interval of sound which constitutes a run-on or end-stopped line of poetry. It is the time required in speaking to pass from the first to the last sound of the line. The measurements are made from the beginning of the first to the end of the last sound of the verse. The pauses at the end of the verses are not included in the measurements. Hence the determinations yield a measure of the length and inequality of the verses only. TABLK VII(.

Su6j~cl.

J.

(Podry.) 1_ I a

a

W. R.

2. 20

O.J6

0.15

E. W.S.

I. IS

0.09

0.0'/

A. D. B. ..,

2.41

O.JO

0.12

w.w.

2.95

0.45

0,15

A. R. P.

1.6J

0.21

0. 12

H. O.

2.05

0,12

0.05

s.

1.87

0.12

o.o6

2.05

0.2J

0.10

0. Av.

~

+J.I8 -1.56 +I.J9 -o.89 +J.14 -1.91 +4·04 -1.87 +1 .92 -l.J5 +2.25 -1.67 +2.12 -I.5J

c

n

+

J2 J6

+

6

+ +

18 4 8 7

TABLE IX. ( Pc·dry ,.~ad as pros~. ) Su6jul.

J.

M . T.

c. 0. w.c. s. Av.

Su6jut.

J. M.

T.

c. 0. w.c. s.

Av.

a

I

4· 14 J..92 1.74 1.66 2.86

0.50 O.JO O. lJ 0 .12 0.26

!_ a 0.12 0.07 0.07 0.07 o.o8

TABLE X . ( Po~try rMd as jodry. ) /> a I a 0.11 4.62 0.55 o.o6 0.2~ J.84 0. 12 1.92 0.2J 0.26 0. 10 2.J9 o.OC) J.l8 O.JZ

e

~

+

5 5

+

8 8

e

,

+ +

5 5

+

8 8

Digitized by

Goog le

J.

66

E. JVallllct lf'allin, XI.

TABLE

( Prou

r~ad

as po~try.)

l

Sul>jut.

a

p

s.

0. E. S.

2.85 3·53

0.27 O.Jl

a 0.09 o.o8

Av.

J.I6

0.29

o.o8

I.

TAILE

c

+

, 4 4

XII.

(Summary of T AIlLES VIII . , IX., and X., fodry. ) Ta!Jk

VIII. IX. X. Av. Unit of measurement, I'. a, average duration. p, immediate probable error.

!.

a

p

2.os 2.86 J.IS

0.2J 0.26 O.J2

a 0 .10 0.08 0 .0. B.A G. A. A.

0.40 0.27 0.30

0.03

0.07

0.05

0.18

W . L. P.

0.29

O.Oj

0.24

c.

0.

0.36

o.o8

0.22

s.

I.

0.38

0.05

0. 13

0. E . S.

0.43

o.os

0,11

Av.

O.J2

0.05

0.16

Su6jut.

J

M.T.

s.

Suhj~cl.

a

p

n

~

+0.45 -0.14 +0.43 -o. 16 -l-0.47 -0.18

+

14

+

14

+

17

+

2 2 5

+

3

0 +o·47 - 0.22 +o.41 -0.22 +o.5o -0.20 +0.47 -O.J2 +o.56 -0:]4

5

+

3

+

4

I.I.

TABLE :~·sylla61~

inl~rvals.

sound·anlroid

l

a

J.

M . T.

0.46

0.08

0. 17

c.

0.

O.J6

o.o6

0.16

s.

I.

0.4J

0.04

0.09

0. E . S.

0.48

0.09

0.18

W. W.

0.42

0.07

0.16

A. D. B.A

0.5J

0.10

0.18

E. W. S. G. A. A. W . L. P. c. 0 . s.

O.f4 0.41 0.41 0.52

Av.

0.44

i11t~rvals . ~

c

n

+o.75 -0.25 +o·S4 -o.18 +o.52 -0·35 +o.65 -0.21 +o.66 ··-0.20 ->·0.79 -0.31

+

17

0

14

+

6 8

·+

+

42 6 6o 33 26 26

0.07

0.15

Digitized by

Goog le

Rtuardus on lht rhythm of spuch. LII.

TABLE

.J·syllablt sound·unlroid a

p

ta

w.w.

0.72

o.o8

0.11

E. W. S.

0.49

0.04

o.o8

A. D. B.A

o.s6

0.14

0.25

G. A. A.

o.sr

o.os

o.og

W. L. P.

o.6o

o.o8

0.13

c. 0. s.

o.63

o.o8

0. 12

s. I.

0.61

o.o6

o.og

Subjut.

107

inltrvo~ls.

,

~

t

+o·97 -o.s8 +o.s6 -0.37 +0.79 -0.37 +o.62 -0.37 +o.7o -0.41 +o·7S -0.37

s

+

J2

3

+

10 4 8

+o.io

3

-o.so

0. E. S.

o.8g

Av.

0.62

2 0.07

0.12

TABLE

LUI.

1·sylla6/c sound.cmtroid inltrva/s. a

p

!.

M.T. c. 0. G. A. A.

0.72 o.6o o.6s

0.02

0.03

W.L. P.

0.68

o.o8

0.11

Subjul.

J.

c. 0. s.

a

t

c

n

+0.70 -0.62

+

3

+o.n

3

-0.54

S. I. 0. E. S.

o.83 0.62 0.78

Av.

o.6g

--

2

o.os

Unit of measurement, I'. a, average duration. p, immediate probable error.

0.07 t, extreme intervals. c, character of greater extreme. n, number of intervals.

P, relative immediate probable error. a

Digitized by

Goog le

.f. E. Wallace Wallin,

108

Mtasunmtnls of composilt·ctnlroid inltrvals. TABLE

. Suljut.

E. W.S. A. D. B.A

w.w. J.

M. T .c

LIV.

r -paust· r-syl/a/11~ romp..• it~·cmlt oit( inl~rvals. p a ~ p a 0.11 0. 14 + 1. 12 0-74 -o.p 0.66 0.98 0.14 0.14 + 1-47 -0.72 0.08 0.92 o.o8 + 1.04 o.64

0.16

0-25

W. L.P.

1-34

0.19

0.14

c. 0. s.

0.32

0.42

0. E. S.

0.75 0-47 o.65

Av.

0.68

0.16

0.19

I.

TABLE

+ 1.02 -0.43 + 1.75 -1.00

n

+

II

+

II

5

-o.n

c. o .. a

s.

c

+

6

+

5 2

LV.

r-pauu-2-SJ•IIa!J/~ romposil~·anlroid

Su6jut.

"

p

E. W. S.

0.71

o.o8

p a 0.11

A. D. B.

1.07

0.28

0.26

w.w.

0.91

0.17

0.18

J. M. T.c

0-79

o.15

0-19

c. o.B

0-75

O.IJ

0. 17

G. A. A.

0-95

0.17

0.17

W. L. P.

1.26

0.20

o.15

c. 0. s.

0.78

0.21

0.26

s. I. 0. E. S.

0.82 0.90

Av.

0.89

inlffVnls. c

~

+o.89 -o.5o + 1.68 -0.70 + t.66 -o.56 +1.04 - 0-47 +l .o6 -0.43 + 1.47 - 0.62 + 1.66 - o.68 + 1.45 -0.47

n

IJ +

7

+

25 7 10

+

14

+

7

+

II

2 3 0.17

0.18

Digitized by

Coogle

Rtuardus on lht rhythm u.f spudt. TABLE

109

LVI.

rpa11U·.J·sylla61~ composil~·unlroid

Su6jut.

a

jJ

!_

E. W. S. A. D. B."

0-75 0.82

0.25

O.JO

W. W. G. A. A.

I.JI 0.86

0.34

0-39

W.L. P.

0.90

0.15

0.16

c. 0. s. s. I.

0.92

0.14

0.15

Av.

0.91

0.22

0.25

intnvals. ~

a

+ I.J5 -0-45

0.75

TABLE

+

1.47 -o.5o 1.29 -0.70 .... 1.25

+

-o.n

c

,

+

2 4

+ + +

4

c

,

+

3

0 0

2 2

3 5

LVII.

r-pauu-4-sylla6k composilt·untroid intnvals. Subj~d.

a

p

G. A. A.

l.o5

o.15

W. L. P.

1.93 0-95 1.04 I.:Z4

s.

I.

0. E. S. Av.

p a 0. 14

o. q

0.22 0.12

0.16

0. 16

0.21

TABLE

(

+

I .JO -o.85

LVIII.

l·pauu-.s-sylla6/~ t:omposit~-untroid int~rvals.

a

jJ

t.a

,

1.02 1.26

0.21 0.07

0.20 oos

2

0. E. S. Av.

1.14

0.14

0.12

SubjNI.

s.

I.

Unit of measurement, a, average duration jJ, immediate probable error. 11 •

2

extreme intervals. character of greater extreme. n, number of intervals. t,

rt intervals are not the same in the two different schemes; the interval which comes after the emphasized beat is comparati,•ely longer in 1-2' than in I'-2. The same fact was observed by EBHARDT, 1 Why is the interval following the emphasized beat lengthened more in one rhythmic scheme than in the other? This can be accounted for by assuming another factor, besides emphasis, that lengthens the period of the movements. It is due, as already pointed out by ERHARDT, to the formation of the rhythmic group. Rhythmic movements with grouping differ in their nature from those without grouping. The latter is merely a series of repeated movements at a uniform interval, in which every single movement is regarded as a coordinate unit . In the former, a series of the movements is divided into groups containing a certain number of movements as their content, and each of such groups is regarded as a unit. EHHARDT supposed that at the end of the rhythmic group a suspension I EBHARDT, Ztud Bdlriige zur Psydzolngi~ tiu .Ritythmus unti dn Tnnpo, Zt. f. Psych. u. Physiol. d. Sinn., 1898 XVIII 99·

Digitized by

Goog le

.R~searches

on rhythmic action.

TABLE

v.

Beating on 1wisdess key. Scheme: 11-2. Number of Average of inter· Subject. vals from 2 to I 1• measurements. 10 549 10 5q5 s89 10 529 6Ji . C. W. 10 503 53 628 IO 559 IO 641 632 662 10 613 6ol 10 578 10 599 533 M M. { 10 614 633 IO 685 639 708 670 . 10 IO 613 693 681 10 716 10 659 585 6o2 10 536 10 J. K . 584 532 10 669 654 65 6 6r-g 10 10 647 593 681 662 10 Unit of measurement, a= o.oo1•. Average of inter· vals from 11 to 2. 574

l

TABLE

Ratio I ' to2:2tot 1• I.00 : 0.94 1.00 : I.OO 1.00 : o.81 I.OO : O.g8 1.00:0.89 1.00:0.99 1.00:0.92 1.00:0.96 1.00 : 0.89 1.00 : 0.97 1.00 : 0.93 1.00:0.99 1.00 : 0.97 1.00:0.96 1.00:0.89 I.OO : o.Sg 1.00 : 0.91 1.00:0.83 1.00 : 0.93 1.00 : 0.92 1.00:0.97

VI.

Beali11g on noistless kq. Scheme : I-2 1• Average time Number of Subject. from 2 1 to 1. measurements. 10 573 10 723 M. M . 682 IO 746 10 6J2 758 " 661 10 747 10 702 745 10 634 575 10 502 564 IO 7o6 s8z J. K. 10 538 593 588 9 579 669 4 573 10 585 557 10 663 748 10 661 597 10 56 I 829 10 618 773 10 520 564 665 721 IO 621 10 517 10 548 736 Unit of measurement, a= o.oo1•. Average time from 1 to 21 •

l

~;~

Ratio 1 to 2 1 : 2 1 to I . 0.96: 1.00 o.go : 1.00 0.92 : I.OO 0.84 : 1.00 0.89: 1.00 0.94 : 1.00 o.go : 1.00 o.go: 1.00 o.83 : 1.00 0.91 : 1.00 0.98 : 1.00 o.86 : 1.00 0.95 : 1.00 o.89: 1.00 o.go: 1.00 o.68 : 1.00 o.So: 1.00 0.92 : I.oo 0.86: 1.00 o.83 : 1.00 0.75: 1.00

Digitized by

Goog le

Ishiro Miyake,

x6

of attention takes place and that the moment of suspension can be considered as a dead time, which is to be added to the length of the foregoing group. We are not certain whether such suspension of the attention takes place or not. But it seems to be more probable that we have a tendency to insert some "pause" between two successive rhythmic groups, in order to mark off the groups distinctly from each other. The '' pause '' is to facilitate the formation of the groups. We may suppose then that a certain length of "pause" was inserted between the groups in the scheme x'-2 as well as in 1-2', and that because the interval from 2' to 1 of the scheme 1-2' is lengthened both by the "pause" and the emphasis, it is made considerably longer than the time from 1 to 2', whereas in the scheme x'-2 the time from I' to 2 is lengthened only by the emphasis, while the time from 2' to I is lengthened by the "pause," whereby the difference between I-2' and 2'-I is not so great. TABLE VII. Beating on noiseless key. Scheme I 1 -2-3. Subject.

Average time Average time Average time Number of from 1' to 2. from 2 to 3· from 3 to I 1 • measurements.

M. M. {

J. K.

c. w.

1

[

722 7cyJ

708 724 974 757 734 663

62I 624 586 OOI 553 559

575

l'nit of measurement,

445 462 657 655 968 739 592 646 5cyJ

614 589 595 54 I 546 559

I 1 to

Ratios 2: 2 to 3:3 to I 1•

638 78o 6I7 65o 949 752 620 634

7 IO

I.oo: o.62: o 88 I.OO: 0,)8: 0.99

IO 10 9 IO 10 IO

1.00:0.93:0.87 I.OO: 0.90: O.cyJ I.OO: 0.99:0.97 1.00:0.97:0.99 1.00:0.81 : 0.85 1.00:0.99:0.96

574 62I 578 562 so8 550 541

IO 10 IO 10 IO 10 IO

I .00: 0.96: 0.92 I.OO: 0.99: 1.00 1.00: I.CO: 0. 99 1.00:0.99:0.95 1.CO: 0.98:0.92 1.00:0.98:0.95 I 00:0.97:0.94

a=O.OOI".

The results of the experiments on the scheme x'-2-3 are given in Table VII. The ratios of the average intervals were found here by assuming the time from r' to 2 as the unit. The table shows again that the interval following the emphasized beat is longer than that which follows the unemphasized one. The lengthening of the interval between the groups is not remarkable here. Although with the subject M. M. the interval 3 to x' is longer than 2 to 3, with J. K. the two intervals are about equal and with C. W. 3 to

Digitized by

Coogle

.Rtstardus on rltylhmic action. I' is in a majority of cases shorter than 2 to 3· This is due perhaps to the fact that for the last two subjects the '' pause '' between the groups was very short. Moreover, it is probable that the two subjects made the second member of the group stronger than the third, the beats being made not exactly in the scheme I'-2-3, but in a manner something like I"-2'-3 with the consequence that the interval following the second beat on account of the emphasis became longer than that following the third. The results of the experiments on the scheme I-2'-3 are given in Table VIII. The ratios of the average intervals were obtained by regarding 2' to 3 as a unit. It will be observed here that the interval 3' to J is very constantly longer than I to 2'.

VIII. Btalin~ on noisdtss key. TABLE

Scheme: I-2'-3· Average time Average time Average time Number of Ratios Suhject. from I to 21 • {rom 2 1 to 3· from 3 to I. measurements. Ito 2 1 : 21 to 3 : 3 to 1. 668 0.52 : I.OO: 0-93 714 9 M. M. { 37I 6ol 0.67 : I.OO: 1.07 642 404 7 10 689 719 l.oo: 0.99 713 8o2 IO 842 o. I .OO : 0.90 940 862 8o6 76I 0.88: I.OO: 0.93 9 IO J. K. 0.9I : I.OO: 0.98 78o 769 7~9 IO 740" 0.93: I.OO : I.o8 6 5 765 0.96: I.OO: 0.98 890 927 909 9 IO 762 0·97 : I.OO : 1.04 730 704 10 1.04: I.OO: I.04 614 638 639 10 0.98 : I.OO : 0.98 730 733 74-' 0.98: I .OO: 0.99 746 758 753 9 4t6 8 0.98: 1.00: o.So 581 567 w IO 0.96 : I.OO : I.02 491 465 485 10 0.99 : 1.00 : 1.02 SIS 517 525 Unit of measurement, D = o.oo1•.

o.ts ::

{

c.

l

When 2' to 1 is compared to 3 to x, sometimes the latter is longer than the former, although in a majority of the cases the former is longer than the latter. This fact indicates that there is a strong tendency to lengthen v the interval between the groups. If I-2'-3 is compared to x'-2-3, we find that there is a remarkable difference between the two rhythmic schemes in regard to lengthening of the intervals between the groups. The interval 3 to x' of the scheme I'-2-3 is not so much lengthened as ! 3 to I of I-2'-3. In other words the" pause" between the groups is t· longer in 1-2'-3 than in I'-2-3. This fact indicates that the length of the "pause" is not the same in all rhythmic forms. It depends, probably, on

Digitized by

Goog le

18

Ishiro Mi'yakt,

the amount of difficulty of the formation of the rhythmic groups. The more difficult the formation of the groups, the longer is the pause. In the case x'-2-3 with the first beat of a group emphasized, the group can be easily marked off from the preceding or the following groups, and the rhythmic group can be formed, without lengthening very much the interval between them. But the case is different with the scheme I-2'-3, where neither the first nor the last beat of a group is emphasized. Of the two similar beats one comes at the end of a group and the other at the beginning of the next group ; the two successive groups can be marked off distinctly only by lengthening the interval between them.

B. Drum btals. The same apparatus was used as before except that an ordinary snare drum JOcm in diameter and 50cm in height was substituted for the noiseless key. Both ends were covered with vellum. In order to make the electric connection with this instrument, the touch key (Fig. 4), mounted

~~-!i&El~•~~if~~~· FIG. 4·

on a wooden block, was fastened to the outer wall of the drum, so that the rubber button of the key was in contact with the vellum of the lower side. When the drum was struck at the upper end, the movement of the lower end broke the electric contact of the key. The key was put in series with the PFEIL marker. The beat on the drum could thus be recorded on the smoked paper. The metallic point of the marker was placed in the secondary circuit of a spark coil whose primary drcuit was interrupted by a Ioo v. d. fork as in preceding experiment. The subject was required to stand before the table on which the drum ..., was put and to beat on it with a stick according to prescribed rhythmic schemes. For the beating the arm movement of the right hand was used instead of the finger movement of the previous experiments. Table IX gives the results of the experiments with the scheme I 1-2. In obtaining the ratios of the average intervals the time from 1' to 2 is regarded as the unit. The table shows that the time x' to 2 is longer than 2 to x in almost all cases. With the subject C. W., I' to 2 is always longer than 2 to I~ With J. K., x' to 2 is longer than 2 to I' in all except one case out of 9· With M. M. again x' to 2 is longer than 2 to I' except in one case out of xo.

Digitized by

Goog Ie

Rtstardus on rhyllzmic action. TABLE IX. Drum hats.

Scheme: J'-2. Number of Average time Subject. from 2 to 1 1 , measurements. 10 658 10 714 10 736 10 727 c.w. 10 753 10 739 10 755 10 766 744 7 739 9 620 10 10 724 10 732 10 J. K . 741 10 726 10 762 10 684 10 707 10 793 816 10 10 799 10 819 10 797 M.M. 10 703 783 9 10 657 681 10 699 66o 10 664 Unit of measurement, a= o 001•.

Ratio J 1 to2 : 2to

Average time from J' to 2. 68J 724 750 747 774 791 788 798 71:12 766 0 59 705 737 746 776 777 701 724 817 866 856 868 852 740 825 670

11 •

1.00:0.97 1.00:0.97 1.00:0.98 I 00:0.97 1.00:0.97 1.00 : 0.92 1.00 : 0.96 1.00 : 0.96 1.00 : 0.95 1.00:0.96 1.00 : 0.94 J.OO: 0.99 1.00:0.99 1.00:0.93 1.00:0.911 1.00:0.98 1.00: o.9B 1.00 : 1.03 1.00 : 0.97 1.00:0.93 1.00 : 0.93 1.00 : 0.94 1.00 : 0.93 1.00:0.95 1.00 : 0.95 1.00 : 0.98 1.00:0.97 1.00 : 1,01

Table X gives the results of the experiments with the scheme I-2'. In obtaining the ratio of the two intervals 2' to I is regarded as the unit. It will be observed from the table that again the interval which follows the emphasized beat is longer than that which follows the unemphasized one. The average time from I to 2' is always shorter than 2' to t . lf we compare the schemes x'-2 and 1-2' the comparative length of the time from 2 1 to 1 of 1-'2 is longer than that from I' to 2 of I'-2. The average ratios of the intervals are : 1-2'

1 1-2

x' to M.M. J. K.

to x' I.OO: 0.93 r.oo : o.91 2: 2

L.-

I

to 2' : 2' to I 0.90 : I . OO 0.90: I . OO

This result agrees with that of the beating on the noiseless key, and can be accounted for by attributing it to the same cause. Since the

Digitized by

Goog le

Ishiro Miyak(,

20

TABLE X. Drum /J(a/s.

Subject.

c.w.

Average time from 1 to 2'. 510 499 541 534 550

559

576 567 470 489 618 652 661 68o

J.

K.

M.M.

676 657 727 693 635 67lS

Scheme : 1-2'. Average time Number of from 2' to 1. measurements. 10 550 10 543 10 574 10 561 10 599 10 591 618 10 611 10 10 538 10 523 10 640 10 658 68o 10 10 685 10 68s 6g8 10 8 735 10 718 761 9 10 683 636 756 654 6gl 667 641 693 628 632 622

572 672 632 629 633 583 627 579 572 575

Unit of measurement,

11

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

Ratio 1 to 2': 2' to 1. 0.93:1 .00 0.91: 1.co 0.94 : 1.00 0.95:1 .00 0.92:1.00 0.95:1 .00 0.93:1 .00 0·93: 1.00 o.87: 1.00 0.91: 1.00 0.96:1 .00 0.99 : 1.00 0.97:1.00 0.99:1.00 0.98 : 1.00 0.94:1.00 0.99:1.00 0.96 : 1.00 o.83: 1.oo 0.99:1.00 0.89:1.00 o.Sg: 1.00 o.g6: 1.00 0.91:1.00 0.94:1 .00 0.91 : 1.00 o.go: r.oo 0.92:1.00 0.92: 1.oo 0.92:1 .00

= o.ool'.

time 2' to 1 of the scheme 1-2' is an interval which comes between the rhythmic group, it is made longer by the "pause" in addition to the influence of the emphasis. Table XI shows the results of the experiments on the scheme x'-2-3. The proportion is obtained by regarding I' to 2 as a unit. It will be observed in the table that the time I' to 2, which follows the emphasis is in general longer than 2 to 3 and 3 to I'. The time I; to 2 is constantly longer than 2 to 3, but in some cases it is shorter than 3 to I', owing to the lengthening of the latter by the "pause." The results of the experiment on the scheme 1-2'-3 are given in the Table XII. The time 2' to 3 is longer than I to 2' with exception of a few cases. The time 2' to 3 is in general shorter than 3 to I. This fact indicates that there is a strong tendency to lengthen the time be-

Digitized by

Goog le

Rueardus on rhythmic action. TABLE

21

XI.

Drum beals. Scheme : I 1-2-3. Ratios Number of S b' t Average time Average time Average time u ~ec s. from I' to 2. from 2 to 3· from 3 to I'. measurements. I' to 2:2 to 3:3 to I'. IO 1.00 : 0-99:0.97 6u 004 597 1.00:0.99:0.98 IO 004 593 599 1.00' I.02 : 1.01 IO 588 582 592 1.00: o.98 : 0.94 620 10 644 655 1.00 : 0.98:0.98 6I8 6I8 10 628 1.00:0. 99:0.98 10 6Io 6oi 6I3 c. w. 1.00: o.¢ : 0.96 669 o.oo66 o.oo67 o.oo69 0.0072 0.0072 0.0072

149 149 152 156 149 145 145 149 145 145 145 152 149 145 139 139 139

4·8 5·0 5· 1 5·0 5·1 5·2 5· 1 4·7 4·6 4· 7 4·8 4· 7 4·4 4·5 4·5 4·5 4·7 4·5 4· 7 4·5 4·6 4·4 4·6

o.oon o.oo8o o.oo82 o.oo8o o.oo82 o.oo83 0.0082 0.0075 0.0074 0.0075

o.oon 0.0075 0.0070 0.0072 0.0072 0.0072 0.0075 0.0072 0.0075 0.0072 0.0074 0.0070 0.0074

130 125 122 125 122 120 122 133 135 133 130 133 143 139 139 139 133 139 133 139 135 143 135

B . These are the lengths of successive periods in the cord tone. Using a table of reciprocals (BARLOW or ZIMMERMANN) these are turned into frequencies by the equation C= 1jB, with the results given in column C. The curve of frequency is now to be plotted. This is best done by supposing the speech curve to be laid off along the horizontal or X axis, so that the first vibration is at zero. Above zero the proper number of millimeters is counted upward to indicate the frequency of the cord tone at the start. Thus, if the period of the first group is o. 12', the frequency will be 83; if 1oomm have been assigned to each 100 of frequency, the dot will be placed at 83"'"' above the X axis. Above the point on the X axis at which the second group of vibrations would begin if the curve were laid upon it, the frequency of the cord tone at this moment is indicated by a dot at the proper height. In this manner a series of dots is obtained, indicating the frequency of the cord tone at a succession of moments. (Plate XIV, Fig. 1.)

Digitized by

Goog le

ss

J

E. W.

Scnptur~,

In the diagram of frequency the successive dots might be connected by straight lines. We probably come nearer to the true curve of frequency by drawing a smooth curve that evenly distributes the dots on either side. This may be done with the free hand, by means of draughtsman's curves, or by a flexible rubber ruler; the more general reasons for this procedure may be found in works on the methods of science. 1 The curve of frequency of Jhi, plotted from the table on p. 57, is shown in Plate XIV, Fig. r. The curious interruption of the regular course of figures in the table by 2. 6 arises from the fact that the series of the strongest vibrations used to mark off the groups is replaced at this point by a series arising from one of the weaker vibrations. In the first part of the curve there is some vibration of a changing character that causes a change in the moment of strongest vibration. The unusual figure indicates this latter fact and not any sudden break in the cord tone. A similar occurrence may be seen in o of" bow" at the middle of line 2 (Plate I) and in J of" draw" as indicated below. The periods of the smaller, or cavity, vibrations can frequently be obtained by direct measurement. This occurs most readily when these vibrations are of a simple form or of a pitch much higher than the cord tone. The result becomes more accurate when several successive cavity vibrations can be measured together. When the cavity vibrations are simple in form and a place in the curve can be found where a number of them exactly fill out a group period, the length of the group period divided by the number of vibrations will give the length of the cavity period. No detailed study of the specific sounds will be undertaken on the present occasion ; this will be done in the near future, as soon as the enormous labor of analyzing the similar sounds of several speakers has been completed. One sound, however, calls for special attention, namely, the sonant /1. A faint h is distinctly heard between J and i in "saw him" ; the observation has been verified by several listeners. There is no interruption of the vibrations between the two vowels, but a slight weakening occurs near the middle of the record. The h is thus a sonant one. Other cases are to be found in "saw him" of Plate II and "had" of Plate VII. PIPPING 1 records a similar case in a record of Finnish "keihaita." Principles of Science, Chap. XXII. Zur Plto,.~tikti.Jinn. SpracM, Unl~rs. mit Hmsm's Sprachuichmr, de Ia Soc. finno-ougrienne, XIV, Helsingfors 1899. 1 JEVONS,

I PIPPING,

Dig•tized by

M~m.·

Coogle

Rtuarclus in txptnintnl